Utah State Office of Education
Overview About CTE Calendar Areas of Study Supporting Programs Funding

Preparing Students for the World of Business

Business Education
Keyboarding Research

It is difficult to dispute the prominence of keyboarding as a foundational skill needed to compute efficiently in today’s technology-rich society.
-Renaissance Learning Report, February 2007

Carpal Tunnel SyndromeBusiness Education

Brown Hand Center
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) begins with numbness and tingling in the hand and may involve aching in the hand, forearm or shoulder. It is a very common condition that is caused by a pinched nerve in the palm of the hand.  This Web site reviews anatomy, data, questions and more.

As computer use has increased both at work and home in recent years Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) has become associated with keyboard use. To reduce your risk of developing RSI or other overuse injuries you should follow best practice in posture, technique, workstation set-up, and take regular breaks.

Elementary Keyboarding

Bartholome, Lloyd W. (1998) - PDF
Typewriting/Keyboarding Instruction in Elementary School. Utah State University, Logan, UT.
I am frequently asked questions about the teaching of keyboarding in elementary schools. I have been interested in the area of typewriting/keyboarding for over 40 years, having taught typewriting in junior high schools for 13 years and having taught a methods class for business teachers for almost 30 years.

Education World®
Keyboarding Skills: When Should They Be Taught?

With an enormous computer presence in schools, the question is no longer whether to teach keyboarding but when to teach it.

Erthal, Margaret J. (1998) - PDF
Who Should Teach Keyboarding and When Should It Be Taught? Business Education Forum.
Typewriting, once the domain of business education teachers, was taught in high school. The vocational business curriculum dictated a year of Typewriting I at the freshman level, a year of Typewriting II at the sophomore level, a year of Office Practice and Shorthand I at the junior level, and a year of Secretarial Practice and Shorthand II at the senior level.This curriculum was adhered to by the majority of schools as the objective of business education was vocational in nature. The introduction of the personal computer changed the business education curriculum and the method in which typewriting instruction was delivered.

Himowitz, Michael J. (1994) - PDF
Single, Most Important Computer Skill Children Can Learn Is Basic Typing. The Baltimore Sun.
With the kids back in school, millions of parents across the country are looking at their family computers and asking the old question: What kind of educational software should I buy to justify spending a couple of grand on this gadget? There are a lot of answers. But at the outset, consider that most people who buy computers use them for word processing. And that brings us to the most important single "computer" skill your child can learn: typing. Actually, it was called "typing" when I learned to do it thirty-something years ago on a relic called a typewriter. Today it's called "keyboarding.

Robinson, Erickson, Crawford, Ceaumont, and Ownby (1979) - PDF
Methods of Instruction for Teaching Keyboarding. Southwestern Publishing Company.
From the findings of skill-learning research and studies of time and motion in human performance, technique or form has come to be considered a prerequisite to skilled performance of motor tasks. Without correct technique, the skill cannot be performed with speed, precision, and minimum effort. Technique underlies and becomes the essential basis for the development of keyboarding speed and accuracy.

Sormunen, Carolee (1991) - PDF
Elementary School Keyboarding: A Case for Skill Development. Business Education Forum.
There are strong indications that business educators need to take a more proactive role, not only in aiding elementary classroom teachers with keyboarding instruction, but also in determining the best methods of delivering that instruction.

Ergonomics of Keyboarding

10 Things You Should Know About Hand and Wrist Pain
Some disorders such as myofascial pain syndrome, fibromyalgia, thoracic outlet syndrome, and reflexive sympathetic dystrophy are believed to be the results of cumulative trauma in some cases.

Conventional Wisdom Versus Current Ergonomics
Summarizes some of the new research in office ergonomics.

Humanics Ergonomics
Humanics Ergonomics specializes in occupational ergonomics and ergonomics research and design of products and places for adults, children and people with disabilities.

Office Ergonomics Training: A Checklist
Checklists as diagnostics and solution-finders aren't very successful, but they can be used as learning tools. View one that has been successful in helping people sharpen their eyes in looking for risk factors. 

Office Ergonomics Training:
A Dozen Things You Should Know About Eyestrain

Eyestrain means different things to different people. It can be experienced as burning, tightness, sharp pains, dull pains, watering, blurring, double vision, headaches, and other sensations, depending on the person. If you have any eye discomfort caused by viewing something, you can call it eyestrain.

Office Ergonomics Training:
Demystifying All Those Chair Adjustability Options

If you think you understand why chairs are designed the way they are, think again, and check your assumptions.   You may find one or two new points!

Keyboarding and Basic Literacy

Kilbourne, Ann - PDF
Punching Out Reading Skills. Salt Lake Tribune, Salt Lake City, UT.
When it comes to typing on a reliable Smith-Corona electric, the Type and Read Program's first-grade students at Parkview Elementary School have one row down, two to go.

Magill, Richard A. - PDF
Motor Learning: Concepts and Applications. Wm C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa.
Have you noticed when you are first learning a skill, such as the serve in tennis, the hook in bowling, or a jump in ballet, that you must think about some very specific aspects of the skill, which differ from what you think about after you have become rather proficient at performing that skill?

Sylwester, Robert - PDF
A Celebration of Neurons. University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
Recent technological developments that materially increase the range and speed of human movement and communication pose analogous educational issues about the conscious and automatic movements of students.

Speech and Hand Recognition

Computer Speech and Language

Computer Speech & Language publishes reports of original research related to the recognition, understanding, production, coding and mining of speech and language. The speech and language sciences have a long history, but it is only relatively recently that large-scale implementation of and experimentation with complex models of speech and language.

Dragon Improves Speech Recognition Software

The technology has come a long way over 10 years. Early on, vocabulary was limited, and the recognition process was extremely slow. Dragon is smarter and faster nowadays: Nuance has analyzed speech-recognition data through the years. PCs boast more processing power.


CTE Logo

Areas of Study

spacerCourse Standards
spacerEducator Licensing - Elementary
spacerEducator Licensing - Secondary
spacerPublications and Resources
spacerSoftware and Textbooks
Economics & Entrepreneurship

Family & Consumer Sciences

Health Science

Information Technology


Skilled & Technical Sciences

Technology & Engineering

Download Area Flyer - PDF

CTE...Giving Students the Edge

laura [dot] deshazo [at] schools [dot] utah [dot] gov (Laura deShazo), Specialist
Business Education
Phone: 801>538-7572
Fax: 801>538-7868

andrea [dot] curtin [at] schools [dot] utah [dot] gov (Andrea M. Curtin) , Support Staff
Business Education

careers.utah.gov schools.utah.gov utahcte.org Contact CTE Home

© Copyright 2010, Utah State Office of Education, Career and Technical Education.
All rights reserved. Privacy Policy enforced.

250 East 500 South
P.O. Box 144200
Salt Lake City, UT 84114-4200

CTE Home Utah State Office of Education